Originating in the Latin word distillery, distillation is the process and the result of distilling . This verb refers to filter or to do that drip a liquid, or to achieve the separation of a component from others through the application of hot .
For example: "The distillation of whiskey began to develop in the late fifteenth century", "In the process of obtaining fuel, oil distillation is very important", “The teacher of Chemistry He taught us what distillation consists of ”.
The notion of distillation is often used to name the procedure that allows separate substances that form a mixture , through its condensation or its vaporization. Thanks to the different points of condensation and boiling Of the substances, distillation makes it possible to distinguish between liquefied gases, solids that were dissolved and liquids.
According to how the process develops, it is possible to talk about different types of distillation:
It is used when there is only one volatile substance in the mixture of products liquids, or when there is more than one but the difference in the boiling point of the liquid of greater volatility with that of the rest equals or exceeds 80 ° C. This procedure results in a single product, since: it is the quantity of components that were in the original mixture; one of the components was considerably more volatile than the rest. To perform simple distillation, a vacuum adapter and a vacuum system must be available.
Within this type of distillation, we can distinguish between the following two classes:
* at atmospheric pressure : is made to Pressure environmental. It mainly serves in cases in which the boiling temperature of the product is lower than that of its chemical decomposition;
* under reduced pressure : it is achieved through a decrease in pressure with the aim of lowering the boiling point of the component that we wish to undergo distillation. It is usually used when the boiling point of the product is greater than the temperature of its chemical decomposition.
It is used when the boiling points of volatile substances in the liquid mixture have a difference of less than 80 ° C. When the mixture is heated, the steam acquires more wealth in the element of greater volatility, property that is used to divide the liquid compounds. This type of distillation is mainly characterized by requiring a fractionation column. It can be carried out under reduced or atmospheric pressure, as is the case with simple distillation.
Steam entrainment distillation
It is used to purify or isolate compounds whose boiling point is very high, through the use of temperatures not exceeding 100 ° C. This type of distillation is very convenient for dealing with substances that have a boiling point well above 100 ° C and never decompose beyond that temperature.
Thanks to steam entrainment distillation it is possible to separate substances that are not soluble in H2O, as well as those with slight volatility from other non-volatile ones. An excess of Water to the mixture in which the product you want to separate is. For this procedure two flasks are used (glass or glass vessels whose shape is usually spherical and ends in a straight and narrow cylinder): that of distillation, in which the compounds soluble in hot and / or volatile water remain; and the collector, which recovers water insoluble and volatile. To isolate the organic compounds from the collecting flask, extraction is carried out.