The idea from counter Reformation it is used to name an action that results opposite to one reform which was carried out previously. The reforms, meanwhile, are changes that are made with the intention of improve or update something .
Let's look at some example sentences: "The new government intends to develop a counter-reform of the education system after the modifications established by the previous administration", "The opposition presented a counter reform project of the retirement law ”, "According to various surveys, the counter-reform of the prepaid medicine market is rejected by a large part of the population".
A counter-reform, therefore, develops with the objective from reverse a series of modifications that have been carried out previously. The president of a country, to cite a case, can make a tax reform, promoting changes that benefit certain sectors and, simultaneously, affect the interests of others. When said president leaves power and is succeeded by a leader of another political party, the new president decides to implement a counter-reform, changing the tax laws again to alter the beneficiary / disadvantaged scheme.
If the counter-reform concept is written with an initial capital letter (Counter Reformation ), alludes to movement who faced the Reform . It should be remembered that the Reform it was the initiative that began in the century XVI , being driven by Martin Luther in Germany , and that resulted in the creation of the Protestant Churches.
The Counter Reformation , therefore, was the response that developed the Catholic Church to minimize the impact of Protestantism. Through this movement there was an ecclesiastical restructuring and changes were introduced in the liturgy of this religion .
The Church had been weakened by the Reform of Martin Luther, and for this reason he decided to carry out his Counter Reformation. It all started in 1545 with the Ecumenical Council of Trent and it extended until the end of Thirty Years War , in the year 1648; any act developed to deal with Protestantism since then falls into the category of antiprotestantism.
The Counter-Reformation had the purpose of giving the image of the Church a "breath of fresh air", and for this it had to reduce by all means the influence of Protestant doctrines. It is possible to notice five fundamental aspects on which the Church focused to carry out its plan:
* the doctrine . What better way to fight a current of thought than with an opposite? In fact, it is precisely what the Protestants had done in the first place;
* they founded several seminars, houses where they provided training to people of all ages, as part of a restructuring plan of the Catholic Church;
* they modified the religious orders so that they returned to their traditional forms;
* they began to monitor spiritual movements, trying to focus on godliness as the basis of life and a close relationship with Christ through the mediation of a priest ;
* created and managed the Roman Inquisition , an organism that had the objective of pursuing the behaviors of Protestantism.
According to the point of view, the Counter-Reformation was not substantially different from the objectives that the Protestant Reformation had pursued, at least if we focused on both were intended to renew the Church . Of course, if we look at the aspects merely theological , it is undeniable that these are opposite movements.
The Counter-Reformation divided, so to speak, the Catholic faith into two well-defined paths: the idea that drove Paul IV that God related to us through punishment and that we should fear him; which scattered people like Teresa of Jesus, Ignacio de Loyola and Juan de la Cruz , among others, who lived their religious experience based on godliness.